Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen-presenting cells and key mediators of immunity and tolerance. DC bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems.  As innate immune cells, DC recognize and respond to pathogen associated molecular Patterns (PAMPS) and damage/ danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPS)  through toll-like receptors (TLR).  The role of DC in adaptive immunity is […]

The International Clinical Cytometry Society holds its 34th annual meeting October 4-8 2019 in Atlanta Georgia.   The 2019 program includes courses on B cell and T/NK Lymphomas, AML and ALL, Primary Immunodeficiency’s, and Assay Quality and Assay Validation presented by Virginia Litwin and Teri Oldaker.

Balancing rapidly evolving technology with financial reality or in other words “please don’t tell me my big fancy machine is obsolete.” As a general question, applicable to many situations in our current lives:   what do we do when technology evolves so quickly that our expensive gadgets become obsolete (even though they still work), and the […]

T cell exhaustion is a state of dysfunction that arises during chronic infection and cancer.    When exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory conditions, T cell function falters and declines to the eventual state of exhaustion.  T cell exhaustion was first described for CD8+ T cells and most studies have focused specifically on CD8+ T cells, […]

Using the Power of Flow Cytometry to Measure Minimal Residual Disease (MRD):      Next Generation Flow Cytometry (NSG)  Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)  is the name given to the small number of leukemia or cancer cells in the bone marrow (BM)  that remain in a patient during their treatment, or after treatment when the patient is in […]