T cell exhaustion is a state of dysfunction that arises during chronic infection and cancer.    When exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory conditions, T cell function falters and declines to the eventual state of exhaustion.  T cell exhaustion was first described for CD8+ T cells and most studies have focused specifically on CD8+ T cells, […]

Using the Power of Flow Cytometry to Measure Minimal Residual Disease (MRD):      Next Generation Flow Cytometry (NSG)  Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)  is the name given to the small number of leukemia or cancer cells in the bone marrow (BM)  that remain in a patient during their treatment, or after treatment when the patient is in […]

Although FCSL is not attending, we would like to highlight the annual meeting of The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), May 31-June 4, 2019 in Chicago, Illinois. 

What are MDSC and why are they important?  Simply put, MDSC are pathologically activated myeloid cells.    The name Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell was first coined in 2007, and in the following years MDSC have become a focus of research and drug development programs.    MDSC are a heterogeneous population of myeloid-derived cells consisting of myeloid progenitors, […]

Although FCSL is not attending, we would like to highlight The 4th International Symposium on Immunotherapy,  organized by the Institute for Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy (ICVI), and held May 24-25, 2019 at the Royal Society, London, England UK.

Our immune system is in a constant “molecular arms race” to stave off pathogenic invaders that want take up residence in our bodies. This is a battle where the microbes may gain the upper hand for a time, only to be outmaneuvered by our immune cells (Jonas, 2019).  For an immune cell, one strategy and […]