Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen-presenting cells and key mediators of immunity and tolerance. DC bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems.  As innate immune cells, DC recognize and respond to pathogen associated molecular Patterns (PAMPS) and damage/ danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPS)  through toll-like receptors (TLR).  The role of DC in adaptive immunity is […]

Flow cytometry has become widespread and indispensible tool for medical and scientific research. Given the current demand and future growth projection, the global flow cytometry market is expected to exceed more than $4.93 billion (US) by the year 2022 (Forbes, 2018). Researchers in Japan have recently developed a new method called ghost cytometry that they […]

Balancing rapidly evolving technology with financial reality or in other words “please don’t tell me my big fancy machine is obsolete.” As a general question, applicable to many situations in our current lives:   what do we do when technology evolves so quickly that our expensive gadgets become obsolete (even though they still work), and the […]

T cell exhaustion is a state of dysfunction that arises during chronic infection and cancer.    When exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory conditions, T cell function falters and declines to the eventual state of exhaustion.  T cell exhaustion was first described for CD8+ T cells and most studies have focused specifically on CD8+ T cells, […]

Flow cytometry is a widely used technology for simultaneous detection of several biomarkers at a single cell level.  This quasi-quantitative approach permits the investigator to identify heterogeneity in a sample and make connections between related and unrelated cells. However, the use of flow cytometry has been largely limited to analysis of intra and extracellular proteins […]

Using the Power of Flow Cytometry to Measure Minimal Residual Disease (MRD):      Next Generation Flow Cytometry (NSG)  Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)  is the name given to the small number of leukemia or cancer cells in the bone marrow (BM)  that remain in a patient during their treatment, or after treatment when the patient is in […]

What are MDSC and why are they important?  Simply put, MDSC are pathologically activated myeloid cells.    The name Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell was first coined in 2007, and in the following years MDSC have become a focus of research and drug development programs.    MDSC are a heterogeneous population of myeloid-derived cells consisting of myeloid progenitors, […]

Our immune system is in a constant “molecular arms race” to stave off pathogenic invaders that want take up residence in our bodies. This is a battle where the microbes may gain the upper hand for a time, only to be outmaneuvered by our immune cells (Jonas, 2019).  For an immune cell, one strategy and […]

Why pigs?   2019 is the year of the Pig on the Chinese calendar, and pigs have been part of human history for a very long time.  Pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia ~9000 years ago from wild boar (Guiffra, 2000), and have been part of human agricultural practices since then.  Because they […]

American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Flow Cytometry Action Programming Committee – leveraging industry leader experience to expand the field of flow cytometry Founded by Virginia Litwin in 2007, the AAPS Flow Cytometry Action Programming Committee (APC) was formed to create a forum for in depth discussions of the strengths and specific challenges surrounding the […]