Using the Power of Flow Cytometry to Measure Minimal Residual Disease (MRD):      Next Generation Flow Cytometry (NSG)  Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)  is the name given to the small number of leukemia or cancer cells in the bone marrow (BM)  that remain in a patient during their treatment, or after treatment when the patient is in […]

What are MDSC and why are they important?  Simply put, MDSC are pathologically activated myeloid cells.    The name Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell was first coined in 2007, and in the following years MDSC have become a focus of research and drug development programs.    MDSC are a heterogeneous population of myeloid-derived cells consisting of myeloid progenitors, […]

Our immune system is in a constant “molecular arms race” to stave off pathogenic invaders that want take up residence in our bodies. This is a battle where the microbes may gain the upper hand for a time, only to be outmaneuvered by our immune cells (Jonas, 2019).  For an immune cell, one strategy and […]

Why pigs?   2019 is the year of the Pig on the Chinese calendar, and pigs have been part of human history for a very long time.  Pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia ~9000 years ago from wild boar (Guiffra, 2000), and have been part of human agricultural practices since then.  Because they […]

American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Flow Cytometry Action Programming Committee – leveraging industry leader experience to expand the field of flow cytometry Founded by Virginia Litwin in 2007, the AAPS Flow Cytometry Action Programming Committee (APC) was formed to create a forum for in depth discussions of the strengths and specific challenges surrounding the […]

The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Assay Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a subset of blood lymphocytes that play an essential role in immunosurveillance and the innate immune response.   As a first line of defense, NK cells specifically recognize virally infected and malignantly transformed cells and target them for killing and removal.   And they work […]

Since the first flow cytometers became commercially available 40+ years ago, the field of flow cytometry has grown in leaps and bounds.   The earliest flow cytometers could measure 1-2 cellular parameters, while today, we take for granted that flow cytometers allow us routinely measure up to 20+ fluorescent parameters simultaneously.    Modern flow cytometers are also […]

Silent but Deadly, and Beneficial? – Natural Killer Cells Natural Killer (NK) cells play a major role in targeting and killing both tumor cells and virally infected cells in the body. Although they play a very similar role to cytotoxic T cells, these cells comprise an important component of the host’s innate immune system.  Most […]